Added: Dionta Ellison - Date: 19.09.2021 06:09 - Views: 22887 - Clicks: 2941
Various behaviors and activities are used to express sexuality, some more common than others. Many less common behaviors are negatively labeled, often implying the behaviors are unnatural or perverted. This lecture will address the topics of sexual variations and paraphilic behavior, domination and submission, non-coercive versus coercive paraphilic disorders, and the origins and treatments of paraphilic disorders.
Let's first define sexual variations. Sexual variations refer to those behaviors that are not statistically typical of American sexual behaviors. These behaviors also may occur in addition to the "mainstream" expression of sexuality. It is important to note, however, that atypical does not necessarily mean abnormal; it simply means that the majority of people do not engage in that particular behavior or that it occurs outside of the culturally sanctioned sexual behaviors.
Most sexual variations are also not identified as mental disorders. Some sexual variations are considered to be so extreme by the American Psychiatric Association, or APA, that they are classified as mental disorders, or paraphilias. Paraphilic behaviors tend to be compulsive, longstanding, and distressing to the individual. A paraphilia is a mental disorder characterized by recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or sexual behaviors lasting at least 6 months and involving:. For people with paraphilic disorder, the paraphilic behavior is the predominant sexual behavior, although they may engage in other sexual activities as well.
The distinction between sexual variation and a paraphilic disorder is sometimes a difference of degree and not kind.
For example, many men find that certain objects, such as black lingerie, intensify their sexual arousal; and for other men, these objects are necessary for arousal. In the first case, there is nothing particularly unusual. But if a man is unable to become sexually aroused without the lingerie and the purpose of sex is to bring him in contact with it, the behavior is considered fetishistic disorder by the American Psychiatric Association.
The majority of paraphilic disorder diagnoses involve males. Paraphilic disorder tends to be compulsive, long-standing, and distressing to the individual.
They may lead to legal and interpersonal difficulties, but it may seem irresistible and rewarding for that person who continues the activity. The DSM is the standard worldwide resource for defining mental illness, and for determining which behaviors and desires are healthy and unhealthy. In your text, the fourth-edition of the DSM is referenced.
Regarding diagnoses and classifications for paraphilic disorder, there are no major revisions from the fourth edition to the fifth, just a few changes you should be aware of:. Most people with atypical sexual interests do not have a mental disorder. To be diagnosed with a domination and submission are not paraphilic because disorder, DSM-5 requires that people with these interests:.
This is not very different from the criteria listed in the DSM-IV, just the addition of the personal distress not caused by societal views and the clarification of non-consensual partners and the interest to cause harm. This small, but ificant change in the nomenclature is what we will use in this course. It is also important to recognize that seemingly scientific or clinical terms may not be scientific at all. Instead, they may be pseudoscientific terms hiding moral judgments. What is considered abnormal or excessive is often defined moralistically rather than scientifically.
For example, nymphomaniacs is not currently recognized as a clinical condition by the American Psychiatric Association, but it dates back to the 17th century. It was popularized in the 19th century by Richard von Krafft-Ebing and refers to abnormal or excessive sexual desire in women. Physicians and psychologists use the term to pathologize women's sexual behavior if it deviated from the 19th century moral standards.
Even today, "nymphomania," "nymphomaniac," and "nympho" are still used and retain pathological connotations. Another term, satyriasis, referred to abnormal or uncontrollable sexual desire in men. This was less commonly used than nympho because men were expected to be more sexual than women. Satyriasis is also not recognized as a clinical condition by the APA. It is important to remember to distinguish clearly between the clinical, judgmental, or casual connotations of the various terms.
Variations in sexual behavior are not rare. One of the more widespread forms of sexual variation is domination and submission. It entails the consensual sexual role-playing in which one person dominates and the other submits. Power is a central element, and it is consensual usually without pain. If pain is present, the amount or degree of pain is usually faint or slight. The submissive partner is usually controlled by subtle, nonverbal als, and the majority of individuals that engage in it do it as a form of sexual enhancement.
As such, domination and submission are not a paraphilic disorder since the behavior is consensual and without pain. To be considered paraphilic, such behavior requires that the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner be real, not merely simulated. Bondage and discipline is the most widely known form of domination and submission. It is when a person is bound with scarves, leather straps, underwear, handcuffs, or chains while another simulates or engages in light to moderate discipline activities such as spanking or whipping.
The bound person may also be blindfolded or gagged. This may take place in a special setting known as dungeons, furnished with restraints, body suspension devices, racks, whips, as well as chains. Another form of domination and submission is humiliation, in which a person is degraded. Humiliation can occur in many forms.
Klismaphilia, is the sexual pleasure derived from receiving enemas or water treatments in the anus. There is also urophilia, AKA golden showers, which is the sexual pleasure from contact with urine. Coprophilia is the sexual pleasure from contact with feces and is also known as scat. There are other humiliation activities such as servilism, infantilism, kennilism, or tongue lashing. Servilism is when a person desires to be treated as a servant or slave. Infantilism or AKA babyism is when a person acts in a babyish manner using baby talk, wearing diapers, being pampered, scolded, or spanked by his or her "mommy" or "daddy.
Kennilism is being treated like a dog. The individual may wear a studded dog collar and like being tied to a leash.
Or the individual could be ridden like a horse while the dominant partner applies whips or spurs. And then there is tongue lashing. This is the verbal abuse by a dominant partner who uses languages that humiliate and degrade the other person.
Domination and submission are engaged in private or as part of an organized subculture complete with clubs and business catering to the acting out of domination and submission. An important aspect of paraphilic disorders is whether they involve coercion. Noncoercive paraphilic disorders are regarded as relatively benign or harmless because they are victimless.
Noncoercive paraphilic disorders include fetishistic disorder and transvestic disorder. Fetishism is the sexual attraction to an object which is required or preferred for sexual arousal. To meet APA definition of fetishism as a disorder, one must not be able to have satisfactory sex without the fetish. Instead of relating to another person, one can gain sexual gratification from kissing a shoe, caressing a glove, drawing a lock of hair against his or her cheek, or masturbating with a piece of underwear.
A form of Fetishism is partialism. This is the exclusive attraction to particular body parts. For example, a woman's feet, ears, breasts, legs, elbows, or any other part of her body. As a reaction, the heartbeat increases, muscles can tense, and toes can curl. Using objects for sexual stimulation, such as vibrators, or using female clothing for cross-dressing is not a of fetishistic disorder. Fetishistic behavior can be viewed on a continuum. The object is a substitute for sexual partners and can vary from a slight preference to a strong preference to a necessity for sexual arousal. Most people have slight fetishes, and most fetishes and partialisms rarely cause harm.
Transvestic disorder is another noncoercive paraphilic disorder. It is the wearing of clothing associated with the other sex for sexual arousal. Trans means cross and vest means dress. It forms in a broad range of behaviors in which one can wear only an article of clothing like a bra or panties of the other sex in the privacy of their own home, or an entire outfit.
The difference between transvestistic disorder and fetishistic disorder is the viewing or fondling of the item of clothing versus the wearing of it. The majority of these individuals have no desire to undergo a sex change operation.
And transvestism should not be confused with transsexualism. Most transvestites have no domination and submission are not paraphilic because to change their anatomical sex, where transsexuals do.Domination and submission are not paraphilic because
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